Factsheets for: D-Limonene

CHEMICAL IDENTITY

Norman SusDat IDNS00008437
NameD-Limonene
CAS Registry Number5989-27-5
SMILESCC(=C)[C@@H]1CCC(C)=CC1
InChIKeyXMGQYMWWDOXHJM-JTQLQIEISA-N
Molecular structureD-Limonene
Molecular formula
Monoisotopic mass [g/mol]136.125201
DSSTox Substance IDDTXSID1020778
PubChem CID440917

MAJOR USES

General information
Relevant media
Use categories - NORMAN
Product and Use Categories - DashBoard
Product or Use Categorization
absorbent
adhesive
adhesive:electronics
adsorbent
agricultural
agricultural:animal
agricultural:crop
air_fresheners:consumer_use:detected
air_fresheners:fragrance:consumer_use
air_treatment
antifreezing
apparel_care:footwear:detected
arts_crafts:child_use:detected
automotive_care
automotive_care:detected
automotive_care:interior:detected
automotive_component:tires
beverage:food_service
building_construction
building_construction:brick
building_material
building_material:filler
building_material:filler:hardener
building_material:flooring
building_material:insulation
building_material:walls
casting_agent
cleaning_washing
cleaning_washing:automotive_care:window
cleaning_washing:carpet:consumer_use
cleaning_washing:dishwashing
cleaning_washing:disinfectant
cleaning_washing:drycleaning
cleaning_washing:enclosed
cleaning_washing:flooring
cleaning_washing:flooring:consumer_use
cleaning_washing:fur
cleaning_washing:furniture
cleaning_washing:glass
cleaning_washing:laundry
cleaning_washing:machines:dishwashing
cleaning_washing:pet
cleaning_washing:stain_remover
cleaning_washing:stain_remover:detected
cleaning_washing:textile
cleaning_washing:textile:detergent
cleaning_washing:toilets
cleaning_washing:tools:consumer_use
cleaning_washing:window
colorant
construction
consumer_use
consumer_use:detected
consumer_use_ACToRUseDB
decor:candle
decor:candle:detected
disinfectant
drug
drug:detected
drug:veterinary:pet
dustbinding
electronics
extermination:consumer_use
facility:food_production
facility:food_service
facility:fuel:automotive
feed:animal
filler
fluid_property_modulator
food_additive
food_additive:flavor
food_contact
food_service
fragrance
fragrance:consumer_use
fragrance:consumer_use:detected
fragrance_ACToRUseDB
hardener
human_metabolite
hunting
industrial:cleaning_washing
industrial:fragrance
industrial_manufacturing_ACToRUseDB
inert_ACToRUseDB
ink_remover
lubricant
lubricant:automotive_care
manufacturing
manufacturing:automotive
manufacturing:beverage
manufacturing:building_material:wood
manufacturing:chemical
manufacturing:child_use:detected
manufacturing:cigarettes
manufacturing:cleaning_washing:polish
manufacturing:detergent
manufacturing:drug
manufacturing:electrical
manufacturing:electronics
manufacturing:electronics:computer
manufacturing:export
manufacturing:food
manufacturing:food:dairy
manufacturing:furniture
manufacturing:machines
manufacturing:machines:beverage
manufacturing:machines:cigarettes
manufacturing:machines:electrical
manufacturing:machines:food
manufacturing:metals
manufacturing:minerals
manufacturing:paper
manufacturing:personal_care
manufacturing:personal_care:cosmetics:perfume
manufacturing:plastics
manufacturing:rubber
manufacturing:soap
manufacturing:textile
mining
paint
paint:automotive_care
personal_care
personal_care:cosmetics
personal_care:cosmetics:conditioner:hair
personal_care:cosmetics:deodorant
personal_care:cosmetics:detected
personal_care:cosmetics:exfoliator
personal_care:cosmetics:fragrance
personal_care:cosmetics:fragrance:detected
personal_care:cosmetics:hair
personal_care:cosmetics:lips:detected
personal_care:cosmetics:lotion:detected
personal_care:cosmetics:nails
personal_care:cosmetics:nails:detected
personal_care:cosmetics:perfume
personal_care:cosmetics:restricted_Europe
personal_care:cosmetics:restricted_UK
personal_care:cosmetics:shampoo:hair
personal_care:sanitizer:hand
personal_care:sexual_wellness:gel:detected
personal_care:soap:hand
personal_care:sunscreen:detected
personal_care:wash
personal_care_ACToRUseDB
pesticide
pesticide:animal:inert_ingredient
pesticide:biocide:active_ingredient
pesticide:biocide:non_agricultural
pesticide:consumer_use
pesticide:food_additive
pesticide:inert_ingredient
pesticide:insecticide
pesticide:preservatives
pesticide:veterinary:pet
pesticide_ACToRUseDB
polish
polish:automotive_care
polish:flooring
polish:metals
polish:plastics
printing
printing:handheld
process_regulator
propellant:spray
raw_material:personal_care:cosmetics
resource_extraction:gas
resource_extraction:oil
sewage_treatment
solvent
solvent:consumer_use
solvent:paint_remover
surface_treatment
surface_treatment:metals
tools:paint:consumer_use
toys:child_use:detected
toys:detected
water_treatment
welding_soldering
Chemical Functional Use - DashBoard
Reported functional use
cleaning agent fragrance
dissolve stains and soil fragrance
Emulsion Component fragrance
flavorant fragrance
fragrance component fragrance
Frangrances fragrance
MASKING fragrance
PERFUMING fragrance
Solvents fragrance

EXISTING EVALUATIONS AND REGULATORY INFORMATION

Legislation/EvaluationValueReference
Persistence
Bioaccumulation
Toxicity
PBT/vPvB
CMR
Endocrine disruption
Pesticides (91/414/EEC)
Biocides (EU No. 528/2012)
Other relevant chemical regulations

PROPERTIES

LogKow experimental - DashBoard
LogKow predicted - DashBoard
Solubility experimental (mol/L) - DashBoard
Solubility predicted (mol/L) - DashBoard
Koc_min_experimental (L/kg) - DashBoard
Koc_max_experimental (L/kg) - DashBoard
Koc_min_predicted (L/kg) - DashBoard2297
Koc_max_predicted (L/kg) - DashBoard6324
Biodeg. Half-Life experimental (days) - DashBoard
Biodeg. Half-Life predicted (days) - DashBoard2.93
BCF experimental - DashBoard
BCF predicted - DashBoard512

ENVIRONMENTAL OCCURENCE (all data)

Occurrence data (NORMAN – all data)

Surface water
(relevant matrix)
No. of Countries No. of Countries with Analysis > LOQ No. of Stations No. of Stations with Analysis > LOQ No. of Analysis Frequency of Quantification
Value
Score1 n.a. n.a. n.a.

Occurrence data (NORMAN – recent data2)

Surface water
(relevant matrix)
No. of Countries No. of Countries with Analysis > LOQ No. of Stations No. of Stations with Analysis > LOQ No. of Analysis Frequency of Quantification
Value
Score1 n.a. n.a. n.a.

LOQmin, Median, Max and MEC95 (NORMAN – all data1)

Matrix LOQmin
[µg/L]
Median concentration [µg/L] Max concentration [µg/L] MEC95 [µg/L] (all data) MEC95 [µg/L] (recent data)

1 According to the NORMAN Prioritisation Methodology (Dulio & von der Ohe 2013)
2 Occurrence data from 2019 – 2024
MEC95 is the 95th percentile of the measured Maximum Environmental Concentrations at one site

ENVIRONMENTAL OCCURENCE (detailed information)

Per Country

CountryNo. of stationsNo. of analyses

Per Matrix

MatrixTotal no. of analysesNo. of analyses above LoQMaxMedianUnitLowest PNECEQS

(ECO)TOXICITY

Lowest PNEC fresh water (μg/L)0.73
Experimental / predictedDeterministic
Species
AF1000
Endpoint
ReferencePNEC-ID-0032002
Lowest PNEC marine water (μg/L)0.54
Lowest PNEC sediment (µg/kg dw)83.5
Lowest PNEC biota (µg/kg ww)372

PBT/vPvB & PMT/vMT (NORMAN)

P criterion P score B criterion B score M criterion M score T criterion T score PBT evaluation vPvB evaluation PBT / vPvB score PMT evaluation vPvM evaluation vMT evaluation PMT / vPvM / vMT Score PBMT score Source
suspect P 0.5 suspect B 0.5 M 1 potentially T 0.5 not PBT not vPvB 0 not PMT not vPvM not vMT 0 0.63 Norman
vP 0.571 0.448 NON Mutagenic 0.100 0.425 0.546 0.506 0.526 0.386 Janus

CMR & ED (NORMAN)

CMR score
CMR, category 1 = 1
CMR, category 2 = 0.75
CMR, categorie 3 = 0.5
Under examination = 0.5
Examined and info not suff. = 0.25
Not examined = 0.25
Examined and not classified = 0
not available
Score ED (updated NORMAN 2013)
Proven ED = 1
Suspect ED = 0.5
Not examined = 0.25
Not proven ED = 0
not available

POTENTIAL RISK OF EXCEEDANCE OF LOWEST PNEC

Summary: Risk of Exceedance of the Lowest PNEC
 ValueScore1
Frequency of Exceedance0.00 %
Extent of Exceedance0.00

1 According to the NORMAN Prioritisation Methodology (Dulio & von der Ohe 2013)

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

ValueScore1Reference
Final EXPOSURE score (category 1, 3, 6)N° of countries with concentration > LOQ0.00 %
N° of sites with concentration > LOQ0.00 %
Frequency of observations with concentration > LOQ0.00 %
Concentration trend0.00
Observation in groundwater0.00
Exposure score (0-3)10.00
Final EXPOSURE score (category 2, 4, 5)Exposure Index (KEMI)0.90
Exposure score (0-1)10.90
Final HAZARD scorePBMT0.63
CMR score0.00
ED score0.00
Hazard score (0-1)10.63
RiskFrequency of Exceedance0.00 %
Extent of Exceedance0.00
Risk score (0-2)10.00
Final score for category 1, 3, 6 Final score (0-6)10.63
Final score for category 2, 4, 5 Final score (0-4)11.53

1 According to the NORMAN Prioritisation Methodology (Dulio & von der Ohe 2013)

BIBLIOGRAPHY, SOURCES AND SUPPORTIVE INFORMATION

Dulio V. and Von der Ohe P. (2013) NORMAN Prioritisation framework for emerging substances. NORMAN Association, Verneuil en Halatte, France, 70 pages.